Main Article Content
Working conditions of teachers include many tangible and intangible factors such as proper sanitary conditions, arrangements for good air and water, provision for adequate resting places, quite atmosphere, good climate, proper lighting, and cordial relations between the workers and the head with smooth liaison between the two. The State Education Commission, Manipur 1992 observed that “Lack of even the minimum essential facilities in schools particularly elementary schools, is a serious handicap in raising the quality of school education in the state. The State Education Commission, Manipur also reported that the teachers are sore about their low emoluments, poor conditions of service and lack of even essential physical infrastructure and proper teaching-learning environment in most of the schools. The matter calls for serious attention. The objective is to study the overall working conditions of elementary school teachers in the valley districts of Manipur. The investigator selected representative sample of 96 schools from different managements on the basis of stratified cluster sampling technique. Working conditions questionnaire were administered to 600 teachers. It was found 23% of the respondents reported that they do not have toilet facilities. It was reported that 42.17% teachers had insufficient numbers of teachers in their respective schools. Majority of the respondents (59%) reported that salaries were not paid in time. . Majority of the elementary teachers did not have computer knowledge (62.67%). It was also found that 32.5% did not teach their concern subject. In terms of using teaching aids (65.33%) and preparing lesson-plan(100%), the responses were high. 75.67% of teachers reported to have cordial relationship among the teachers. Only 37.33% of teachers have computer knowledge and 14.17% respondents used computer in teaching. In the age of technology the use of computer is a must. Majority of the elementary teachers did not have computer knowledge (62.67%).