DRAIN CONSTRUCTION INCONGRUITIES BY GHANAIAN CONTRACTORS – Case Study at Kade in the Eastern Region of Ghana, Africa.



With growth in population, urbanization and national development, impervious surfaces will continue to be created hence the resultant rate of runoff generation after rainfall within a catchment area. This generated runoffs are channeled downstream of the catchment area by drains of different sizes. There is the need for drains to be of adequate capacity to be able to carry all these runoffs to avoid overland flow causing flooding and ending on roads and homes. Drain design and construction needs experienced engineers in its executing. This is not seen in Kade, the study area, rural and most areas within Ghana as contracts are given to inexperienced contractors to execute. This research work therefore sorts to investigate drain construction discrepancies within the municipality. Research findings indicates poor drain design, poor siting and construction. Drains of inadequate capacity to carry runoffs is also identified as a problem. Most of the constructed drains are filled with dug soils, bitumen, stones and chippings used in the construction process filling the drain and reducing drain capacity by half. Runoffs therefore settle at points within the drain and unable to drain downstream. Slopes of drain banks is also too steep resulting in washing of soils into the drains during rainstorms after constructions. No bioengineering or vegetation cover to cater for eroding of soils into the drains. Research findings got some road areas having stormwater running from drains unto the roads together with debris, refuse, plastics, weeds which have been accumulated in the drains during the dry season. Most of the drains which have collected sewage water produces odors and serves as breeding grounds for mosquitoes and frogs and other animals. Its therefore of utmost importance that, road construction contracts be awarded to good drainage engineers and not just anyone else who is politically affiliated who will just contract people to do a shoddy work. Drains should be expected by experts to meet standards before paying contractors. Investigations revealed that no proper continuous repairs is done on drains and once they are constructed, that is all and this is shortfall.  Investigations of drain capacity against coverage by weeds, soil, water, sewage, debris indicated that, drain with sewage water is 20%, some drains had 100% soil coverage hence unable to see the drains, with soil and water is 70%, drain breakages is 23%, with soil at the banks of drains is 45%, bad connection to culverts is 3%, drains capacity with soil only is 50% and drains with stormwater is 32% in capacity. This effect results in drain overflow during storms unto roads resulting in floods and splashing.